in united arab emirates dating love site - Stratigraphy harris matrices relative dating of australian rock art


stratigraphy harris matrices relative dating of australian rock art-32

Hot 1 on 1 chat for free - Stratigraphy harris matrices relative dating of australian rock art

11 How can there be different versions of the same past?

12 General Thoughts about How to Consult with Stakeholders 13 Building trust takes time 14 Use ethnography 15 Specific Issues and Concerns 15 Differential power levels 15 Competing claims 15 Informed consent 17 When pasts conflict 18 What do you do if things go wrong? 19 Acknowledgments 20 Further Reading 20 References 21 2 Stratigraphy 26 Jane Balme and Alistair Paterson Introduction 26 What Is Stratigraphy? 27 How Do Different Layers Occur in Archaeological Sites?

27 Principles (or Laws) of Stratigraphy 29 Sources of disturbance 30 Excavation and Stratigraphy 32 Recording Stratifi cation 33 The Harris Matrix: Interpreting the spatial record 34 Creating Analytical Units 37 Case Study 2.1: Sos Höyük 38 Conclusions 44 Acknowledgments 44 Further Reading 44 Excavation 44 Stratigraphy and formation processes 44 References 44 3 Sediments 47 Anthony Barham and Gary Huckleberry Introduction 47 Why Study Soils and Sediments? 122 Photography 123 Drawing and sketching 124 Tracing 124 Counting 127 How and Why Is Rock Art Analyzed?

48 Sediments and Soils – Defi ning Concepts and Terms 50 Field Description and Sampling 51 Broad principles which should be applied during sediment sampling and description 53 Laboratory Techniques 54 Granulometry 55 p H (acidity/alkalinity) 60 Color 62 Organic matter 63 Phosphorus 65 Case Study 3.1: Prehistoric Canals in the American Southwest 67 Case Study 3.2: Kennewick Man, Washington State, United States 72 Conclusions 76 Further Reading 77 References 77 4 Absolute Dating 85 Simon Holdaway Introduction 85 Chronometry 86 Radiocarbon 86 Dendrochronology 90 Isotopic methods 91 Radiogenic methods 92 Chemical and biological methods 94 Geomorphic methods 95 Limits on Chronometric Techniques 96 Maximum limits 96 Minimum limits 98 Limits on radiogenic techniques 100 Precision 101 From Age Measurement to Chronology 101 Temporal Resolution and Behavioral Variation 103 Fidelity and resolution 104 Bayesian analysis 105 Time averaging 106 Case Study 4.1: Bone Cave 108 Time perspectivism 110 Conclusion 110 Acknowledgments 111 Further Reading 111 References 111 5 Rock Art 118 Jo Mc Donald Introduction 118 What Is Rock Art? 128 Informed Methods 129 Formal (or Structural) Methods 129 Statistical techniques 130 Spatial distribution analysis 130 Information exchange and stylistic heterogeneity 131 Diachronic change 131 Dating Rock Art 132 Relative dating 132 Scientific techniques 135 Gender and Rock Art 135 Case Study 5.1: The Depiction of Species in Macropod Track Engravings 136 Concluding Remarks 142 Resources 142 Key associations and journals 143 Further Reading 143 References 143 6 An Introduction to Stone Artifact Analysis 151 Chris Clarkson and Sue O’Connor Introduction 151 An overview 151 Analyzing Stone Artifacts 167 Research design 167 Classifying an assemblage of stone artifacts 168 Choosing attributes to record and measure 173 Managing data 176 Measuring extent of reduction 177 Dealing with diffi cult assemblages 187 Archaeometry 191 Determining the type and fl aking properties of stone 192 Sourcing stone artifacts 192 Is 3D the future of lithic analysis? 286 Preparing for the Research Phase 291 And Finally 293 References 294 10 Human Remains 300 Charlotte Roberts Introduction: Why Study Human Remains and How It Has Developed 300 Ethics and Human Remains 304 Taphonomy, funerary context, and excavation and their effect on analysis and interpretation 306 Care of human remains during and after excavation 307 Detection 308 Excavation 308 Cleaning the remains once excavated 310 Curation of human remains 311 The starting point: basic analysis and interpretation 312 Sex and age at death 313 Paleodemography 316 Normal and Abnormal Variation 317 Normal variation 317 Abnormal variation 320 Methods 322 Studies of the Health of Populations 323 Specific Studies of Disease 324 Macroscopic 324 Biomolecular 324 Using Multiple Methods to Answer Questions on Past Health 326 Conclusion 328 Resources 328 References 329 11 Plant Remains 336 Wendy Beck and Emilie Dotte-Sarout Introduction: A Scene (by Wendy Beck) 336 Macroscopic Plant Remains 337 What Can Plant Remains Contribute to Archaeology?

We conclude that previous claims of extensive displacement of artefacts and post-depositional disturbance may have been overstated.