History and Uses: Carbon, the sixth most abundant element in the universe, has been known since ancient times.
Isotope of carbon dating
Wiens has a Ph D in Physics, with a minor in Geology.
His Ph D thesis was on isotope ratios in meteorites, including surface exposure dating.
Graphite, one of the softest materials known, is a form of carbon that is primarily used as a lubricant.
Although it does occur naturally, most commercial graphite is produced by treating petroleum coke, a black tar residue remaining after the refinement of crude oil, in an oxygen-free oven.
The average atomic mass for the element is actually 12.011.