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Over the years, several competing theories have been proposed for this name's ultimate origin— the earliest such proposal is by the Jesuit priest Pierre François Xavier de Charlevoix, who wrote in 1744: The name Iroquois is purely French, and is formed from the term Hiro or Hero, which means I have said— with which these Indians close all their addresses, as the Latins did of old with their dixi— and of Koué, which is a cry sometimes of sadness, when it is prolonged, and sometimes of joy, when it is pronounced shorter. His preferred etymology at the time was from Montagnais irin "true, real" and ako "snake", plus the French -ois suffix, though he later revised his theory to state that the source was Algonquin Iriⁿakhoiw.

Hale suggested instead that the term came from Huron, and was cognate with Mohawk ierokwa "they who smoke" or Cayuga iakwai "a bear". However, none of these etymologies gained widespread acceptance, and by 1978 Ives Goddard could write: "No such form is attested in any Indian language as a name for any Iroquoian group, and the ultimate origin and meaning of the name are unknown." A more modern etymology is that advocated by Gordon M.

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Bradley traces the origins of the Onondaga, beginning around a.d. Much attention is devoted to the The early history of the Onondaga Iroquois and their cultural responses to the European invasion are illuminated in this valuable study, Evolution of the Onondaga Iroquois.