History of Interpretation Throughout the 19 century, Rameses II was considered the pharaoh under whom the Hebrews were enslaved, and his son Merneptah the pharaoh of the exodus. However, discovery of the Merneptah Stele, referring to Israel as a recognized people settled in Canaan by the 14 century, invalidated this view.
‘This new data appeared to require that Israel had already been settled there by the end of the 13th century BC.
The area is a massive smelting camp containing the remains of hundreds of furnaces and layers of copper slag, the waste created during the smelting process.
In addition to the furnaces, the researchers unearthed an impressive collection of clothing, fabrics, and ropes made using advanced weaving technology; foods, like dates, grapes, and pistachios; ceramics; and various types of metallurgical installations.
Archaeologists working in Israel at a two-room military fortification dating back to the tenth century BCE, the time of King Solomon’s and David’s reigns, continue to discover new information.
Discovered in 2014 in Israel’s Timna Valley, the gatehouse complex which included livestock pens, was built using heavy stones to defend against invaders.
It restates the cardinal rule that has guided the Jewish people from the time of the giving of the Torah at Mount Sinai: in order to prosper keep the Torah.